Measurements of the magnetic properties of conduction electrons
V.M. Pudalova,b aLebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation bNational Research University Higher School of Economics, ul. Myasnitskaya 20, Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation
We consider various methods and techniques of measuring electron magnetization and susceptibility, which are used in experimental condensed matter physics. The list of considered methods for macroscopic measurements includes magnetomechanic, electromagnetic, modulation-type, and also thermodynamic methods based on the chemical potential variation measurements. We also consider local methods of magnetic measurements based on the spin Hall effects, NV-centers. Scanning probe magnetometers-microscopes are considered, such as magnetic resonance force microscope, SQUID-microscope, and Hall microscope. The review focuses on spin magnetization measurements of electrons in non-magnetic materials and systems, particularly, in low-dimensional electron systems in semiconductors and in nanosystems, which came to the forefront in recent years.
Keywords: spin magnetization, spin susceptibility, conduction electrons, magnetic properties measurements DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2020.05.038771 Citation: Pudalov V M "Measurements of the magnetic properties of conduction electrons" Phys. Usp., accepted
Received: 4th, October 2019, revised: 2nd, May 2020, accepted: 22nd, May 2020