Surface-plasma method for negative ion beams production
V.G. Dudnikov†a,b aNovosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation bBudker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, prosp. akad. Lavrenteva 11, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Increased interest in the development of negative ions sources is associated with the development of important applications of beams of negative ions. These are, first of all, tandem accelerators, including high-energy implantation and accelerated mass spectrometry, supercollimated beams, charge exchange injection into cyclic accelerators and storage rings, charge exchange extraction of beams from cyclotron, high-energy neutrals in plasma systems, charge exchange of beams distribution, etc. The review describes the development of sources of negative ions and their application in research and industry. The description of physical bases and constructions of surface-plasma sources of negative ions, and also the history of their development is given.