L.P. Babich All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics — Federal Nuclear Centre, prosp. Mira 37, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region, 607190, Russian Federation
With a goal of assessment current status of the research of thunderous nuclear reactions, observations are reviewed of neutron flux amplifications occurred in thunderclouds and in thunderstorm times connected with photonuclear reactions on account of bremstrahlung of high-energy runaway electron avalanches capable of developing in thunderous electric fields. A difficulty is noted of a selection of thunderous neutrons connected with that detectors are immersed in a mixed field of different penetrating emissions, including along with neutrons primary high-energy electrons and their bremsstrahlung. A special attention is given to a discovery of electron-positron annihilation line with the photon energy 0.511 MeV in thundercloud and on the ground in thunderstorm time providing trustworthy evidences of the neutron production in thunderstorm atmosphere and photonuclear origin of thunderous neutrons. Consequences of this discovery are discussed.