Accepted articles

Reviews of topical problems

Dynamics of nuclei and electrons in free molecules and condensed matter

 a,  b,  c,  d,  e,  b,  a
a Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Fizicheskaya 5, Troitsk, Moscow, 108840, Russian Federation
b Federal Scientific Research Center "Crystallography and Photonics", Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prosp 59, Moscow, 119333, Russian Federation
c Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, pr. F. Yengel'sa 7, Ivanovo, 153460, Russian Federation
d Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics, and Automatics (Technical University), prosp. Vernadskogo 78, Moscow, 117454, Russian Federation
e Scientific Research Computer Center, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskiye Gory 1, building 4, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation

The study of the structural dynamics of matter with a high spatially-temporal resolution represents a new direction of modern science, which is a necessary step to explain the relationship between the elements of the structure-dynamics-property triad in physics, chemistry, biology, and the science of materials. The review outlines the theoretical foundations and experimental methods of ultrafast diffraction of electrons and X-rays, electron crystallography and nanocrystallography, ultrafast electron microscopy — methods that allow real-time observation of the dynamics of nuclei and electrons. The method of electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction with a temporal resolution made it possible to combine the high temporal resolution provided by a pulsed laser source with the atomic spatial resolution inherent in diffraction methods. Advances in the development of pulsed laser technology have predetermined a further breakthrough in the field of research into ultrafast structural dynamics of nuclei and electrons. As a result of this progress, the use of femto- and attosecond laser pulses, both to excite the sample and to form ultrashort synchronized with optical pulses photoelectron bunches, in the limit of femto and attosecond duration, for probing the matter, has opened up the possibility of observing coherent dynamics of nuclei and electrons in the studied samples on the necessary space-time scales. The many-particle potential is so complex that the degree of non-adiabatic interaction cannot be determined with the accuracy necessary to predict the reaction paths. A colossal breakthrough is the possibility of direct observation of the reaction process. How can this information and the new view on reactionary dynamics be used in the future? This question is posed in the connection with the development of new conceptual foundation of the natural sciences, which marks the convergence of experimental and theoretical tools in the study of the systems of any level of complexity with atomic resolution. The main conclusion is that the implementation of the "atomic-molecular cinema" is carried out using the complementary information obtained in the triune approach based on the combined use of ultrafast electron diffraction and ultrafast X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy and the theory of quantum dynamics of the matter.

Text is available here.

DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2018.11.038477
Citation: Aseev S A, Akhmanov A S, Girichev G V, Ischenko A A, Kochikov I V, Panchenko V Ya, Ryabov E A "Dynamics of nuclei and electrons in free molecules and condensed matter" Phys. Usp., accepted

Received: 4th, October 2018, revised: 19th, November 2018, 22nd, November 2018

Оригинал: Асеев С А, Ахманов А С, Гиричев Г В, Ищенко А А, Кочиков И В, Панченко В Я, Рябов Е А «Структурная динамика свободных молекул и конденсированного вещества» УФН, принята к публикации; DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.2018.11.038477

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