B.P. Filippov Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kaluzhskoe shosse 4, Troitsk, Москва, 108840, Russian Federation
Coronal mass ejections are the largest-scale eruptive phenomenon in the solar system. Their radical influence on space weather explains great interest to observations, modeling, and forecasting of these events. General properties of mass ejections from the solar atmosphere, their physical parameters, event frequency and its dependence on the phase of a solar cycle are described. Potential sources of ejections in the solar atmosphere are considered, as well as magnetic field configurations where energy needed for sudden explosive large mass acceleration can be stored. Main instabilities of coronal structures leading to initiation and progress of eruptive processes are analyzed. The relation of coronal mass ejections to other manifestations of solar activity and unity of the eruptive process observed with different techniques in different layers of the solar atmosphere and interplanetary space are shown. Indications of the approach of pre-eruptive regions on the Sun to catastrophe and possibilities of their usage for the forecasting of eruptions and space weather disturbances are discussed.