In this review, we consider works on the development of electronics based on silicon carbide, much of which was carried out at the Physicotechnical Institute named after A Ioffe. A brief analysis of the electrical properties of SiC and other wide-gap semiconductors from the point of view of creating various types of devices is given. The growth of bulk crystals of silicon carbide, of high quality, with a diameter of up to 4 inches, both pure and doped with impurities and enriched with its own isotopes, is described. Controlled growth of the different SiC polytypes is demonstrated. The lateral overgrowth of the seeds is shown to diminish threading dislocation densities.
Experimental data on the development and research of high-voltage (1—3 kV) 4H-SiC diodes for power and short-pulse electronics are presented. It is shown that power diodes with an integrated Schottky- (p-n) -structure (JBS) combine small reverse recovery times and small switching losses. Ultrafast avalanche rectifiers have reverse reovery times compatible with those of JBS-diodes and are able to withstand avalanche energy up to several J/cm2. 4H-SiC based opening switches - drift step recovery diodes - can generate high-voltage pulses with rise time in subnanosecond range.
The main processes in 4H-SiC power bipolar devices: thyristors, bipolar transistors, and diodes have been considered in the frame of analytical models as well as using numerical software "INVESTGATION" ("ISSLEDOVANIE"). Besides, physical phenomena common to all silicon carbide-based bipolar devices are considered: electron-hole scattering, the problem of effective emitter, and fundamental physical limitations of limiting blocking voltage and limiting current density.
The unique quantum properties of color centers in silicon carbide allowed us to confirm the new role of silicon carbide as a flexible and practical platform for the development of modern quantum technologies. Atomic-sized color centers in bulk and nanocrystalline SiC are promising systems for spintronics, photonics compatible with the transparency band of fiber optics and living systems, quantum information processing, and sensing under ambient conditions. The possibilities of high-temperature optical spin manipulations, both on spin ensembles and on single spins, opened a new era in the application of spin phenomena, both in basic science and in applied research.
In the final part of the review, the technology of the growth of graphene films by the method of thermal destruction of the surface of SiC single crystals is considered. It is shown that these films have good structural perfection and can be used to create supersensitive gas and biosensors.
Keywords: Silicon Carbide, bulk crystals, sublimation, polytypes, lateral overgrowth, dislocations, high-voltage power diodes, high-voltage subnanosecond pulse diodes, thyristors, dipolar junction transistors, analytical models, Computer simulations, color center, spin, sensorics, magnetic field, EPR, ODMR, graphene, two-dimensional materials, Raman spectroscopy DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2018.10.038437 Citation: Lebedev A A, Ivanov P A, Levinshtein M E, Mokhov E N, Nagalyuk S S, Anisimov A N, Baranov P G "SiC based electronics" Phys. Usp., accepted
Received: 4th, September 2018, revised: 1st, October 2018, accepted: 4th, October 2018