X-ray diffraction methods for structural diagnostics of materials: progress and achievements
G.V. Fetisov Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskie Gory 1, str. 3, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
The review describes the improvement of X-ray diffractometry at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries for structural studies, both with the use of traditional continuously radiating X-ray generators and the latest sources of ultrashort and ultra-bright X-ray pulses, which make it possible to investigate the structural dynamics of a condensed matter in a 4D space-time continuum with a resolution of up to a tenth fraction of femtoseconds. Mainly new technical means to increase the sensitivity, accuracy and efficiency of X-ray diffraction experiments are discussed: new and promising sources of X-rays, reflective collimating and focusing X-ray optics, fast low-noise and radiation-resistant position sensitive X-ray detectors, and new generation X-ray diffractometers based on these elements. The greatest attention is paid to modern technical solutions that ensure university and industrial laboratories to conduct locally the X-ray diffraction studies which previously were considered possible only with synchrotron radiation at international collective use centers.