Gas-dynamic sources of cluster ions for basic and applied research
V.S. Chernysha aLomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Physics, Leninskie Gory 1 build. 2, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation bUniversidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Campolide, Lisboa, 1099-085, Portugal cRyazan State Radio Engineering University named after V.F. Utkin, Gagarina Street 59/1, Ryazan, 390005, Russian Federation dWuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China eNovosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
State of the art in the development and application of gas cluster ion sources is considered. The mechanisms of neutral cluster formation, the techniques applied to study their flows and regularities of ionization and the principles of mass separation of ion beams are discussed. Design features of some cluster ion beam sources intended for various applied and academic studies are considered. Use of such sources for controlled modification of surface topography, ultra-shallow ion implantation, development of analytical techniques, and stimulation of surface chemical reactions is analyzed.
Keywords: clusters, gas cluster ions, ion sources, supersonic flows, ionization, mass separation, sputtering, self-organization, ion implantation, XPS, SIMS PACS:29.25.Ni, 36.40.−c, 41.75.−i, 68.49.Sf (all) DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2021.06.038994 URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2022/7/c/ Citation: Ieshkin A E, Tolstoguzov A B, Korobeishchikov N G, Pelenovich V O, Chernysh V S "Gas-dynamic sources of cluster ions for basic and applied research" Phys. Usp.65 677–705 (2022)