Measurement problems: contemporary discussions and models
V.S. Pronskikh Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, Illinois, 60510-5011, USA
The review discusses the basic concepts of measurement that existed from the end of the 19th century to the present day, such as representational theory, realistic, operationalist, conventionalist, theoretical-informational and theoretical-operational model approaches to measurement, their advantages and weaknesses. Such characteristics of measurement as accuracy, precision, and various aspects of their application, related to agreement between measurement results, measurement and standard, measurement and 'true' values, as well as internal and external reproducibility of measurements, are considered. The theoretical-operational model approach to experiment (and measurement), based on V.A. Fock's three-part scheme, proposed by him for quantum mechanics, is discussed in detail using an example from the physics of elementary particles. Advantages of the latter approach to the others as well as its possible applications to the determination of systematic uncertainty are examined.