100 years of the Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk journal. Reviews of topical problems
Solar cosmic rays: 75 years of research
L.I. Miroshnichenkoa,b aPushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kaluzhskoe shosse 4, Troitsk, Москва, 108840, Russian Federation bLomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Leninskie Gory 1 build. 2, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
28 February 2017 marked the 75th anniversary of the first confident detection of solar cosmic rays (SCRs), the term referring to accelerated solar particles with energies from about 106 to ∼ 1010—1011 eV. The present paper reviews the key observational and theoretical results on SCRs that have been accumulated over this period. The history of the discovery of SCRs is briefly described together with SCR recording techniques and instruments, and some physical, methodical and practical aspects of SCR generation are discussed in more detail. Special attention is given to charged particle acceleration mechanisms at and near the Sun. Current ideas on the interaction of solar cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere, their transport in interplanetary magnetic fields, Earth's magnetospheric movements and their impact on the Earth's atmosphere are reviewed. It is shown that this field of space physics produced many results of fundamental interest for astrophysics, solar-terrestrial physics, geophysics and practical cosmonautics (astronautics).
Keywords: Sun, solar flares, particle acceleration, solar cosmic rays PACS:61.05.fg, 61.46.−w, 75.50.Mm (all) DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2017.03.038091 URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2018/4/a/ Citation: Miroshnichenko L I "Solar cosmic rays: 75 years of research" Phys. Usp.61 323–352 (2018)