Massive and supermassive black holes in the contemporary and early Universe and problems in cosmology and astrophysics
a Russian Federation State Scientific Center ‘A.I. Alikhanov Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics’, ul. Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow, 117259, Russian Federation
b Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
c Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico — Edificio C, Via Saragat 1, Ferrara, 44122, Italy
d Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Ferrara Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico — Edificio C, Via Saragat 1, Ferrara, 44122, Italy
This review concerns recent astronomical data showing that the role of massive primordial black holes in the Universe is much more significant than previously thought, both for the present Universe and for redshifts of order 10. The 1993-proposed model accounting for the primordial creation of heavy and superheavy black holes with a log-normal mass spectrum is discussed, which explains in a natural way some facts about the Universe that are unaccounted for in standard cosmology and astrophysics.