Yu.N. Eroshenkob aLaboratoire de Physique Theorique d’Orsay CNRS UMR 8627, Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 210, Orsay Cedex, 91405, France bInstitute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, prosp. 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7a, Moscow, 117312, Russian Federation
The new, rapidly developing field of theoretical research into dark energy interaction with black holes (and in particular, the accretion of dark energy onto black holes) is reviewed. The term “dark energy” is meant to cover a wide range of field theory models as well as perfect fluids with various equations of state, including cosmological dark energy. Various accretion models are analyzed in terms of the simplest test field approximation or by allowing for back-reaction on the black hole metric. The behavior of various types of dark energy in the vicinity of Schwarzschild and electrically charged black holes is examined. Nontrivial effects due to the presence of dark energy in the black hole vicinity are discussed. In particular, a physical explanation is given of why a black hole decreases in mass when accreting phantom energy, a process in which the basic energy conditions of the famous theorem of nondecreasing horizon area in classical black holes are violated. A theoretical possibility of a signal escaping from beneath the black hole event horizon is discussed for a number of dark energy models. Finally, the violation of the laws of thermodynamics by black holes in the presence of noncanonical fields is considered.