a Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. K. Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630092, Russian Federation
b NEC Green Innovation Research Laboratories and RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
c Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
d Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
e Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, Jena, D-07702, Germany
We review the current state of research into the development of nanomechanical resonators and their application as components of nanoelectromechanical and optomechanical systems for the highly sensitive detection and visualization of material structure. Methods for the manufacture and characterization of nanoscale mechanical resonators are described. We discuss quantum properties of nanomechanical resonators and dynamical cooling schemes for suppressing fluctuations in order to increase the threshold sensitivity of optomechanical and electromechanical systems.