Phase transitions in various kinds of clusters
R.S. Berry a
B.M. Smirnov b
a Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, 5735 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois, 60637, USA
b Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow, 127412, Russian Federation
This discussion examines cluster phase transitions and properties related to those phase transitions. Interpreted in terms of their potential energy surfaces, phase transitions in clusters of dielectric and metal atoms differ. Properties of aggregate states of dielectric clusters vary weakly as functions of temperature, and phase coexistence takes place in a range of conditions around the traditional melting point, where the solid and liquid phases have equal chemical potentials. On contrary, the configurational state of a solid metal cluster may well vary as it is heated, and the phase transition results, at least in part, from electronic coupling, as well as from changes in atomic configuration.