Anisotropy and polarization of cosmic microwave background: state of the art
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Shternberg State Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii prosp. 13, Moscow, 119889, Russian Federation
The anisotropy and polarization of cosmic microwave background radiation provide the most powerful tools for modern cosmology. At present, many experiments for observing these phenomena are either being conducted or prepared, which holds promise for yielding the fundamental parameters of the present and early universe; for shedding light on the crucial current problem of the existence of gravitational waves; and for solidly contributing to elementary particle and high energy physics. In the present paper the formation mechanisms of anisotropy and polarization are briefly discussed. The latest experiments in the field, in particular the WMAP experiment aboard a special spacecraft, are given particular attention.