Collective ion acceleration in systems with a virtual cathode
A.E. Dubinov a
I.Yu. Kornilova a
V.D. Selemir b
a All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics — Federal Nuclear Centre, prosp. Mira 37, Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region, 607190, Russian Federation
b Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 119942, Russian Federation
The current status of research and development in the realm of physics and technology of collective ion acceleration in systems with a virtual cathode (VC) is reviewed. Three major acceleration methods and devices developed on their basis are considered: reflex triodes and their modifications, gas-filled
vircators, and vacuum vircators with a Luce diode. Experimental data are outlined and the principal physical models interpreting these data are described. New ion acceleration techniques whose realization involves the production and disappearance of the VC are also discussed. All methods of collective ion acceleration are compared and the possible ways for the further development of this promising scientific field are highlighted.