Physics of our days

Black holes in the Universe

 a, b, c,  d
a National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, pl. akad. Kurchatova 1, Moscow, 123182, Russian Federation
b Astro Space Centre, Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation
c Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen, DK-2100, Denmark
d Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

Diverse physical and astrophysical aspects of black holes are reviewed. We start by describing a membrane paradigm approach in which a black hole is treated as a physical body with very special properties. In particular, a black hole behaves as a conducting sphere with a universal finite electrical resistivity, so that when rotating in an external magnetic field it becomes a unipolar inductor capable of producing a huge potential difference. Astrophysical applications of this mechanism are described and the properties of spacetime inside a black hole are briefly considered. In the bulk of the review, possible sources of observational evidence for the existence of black holes are discussed. Prospects for the detection of gravitational waves from black holes in future by gravitational wave observatories are also examined. The review is concluded with a discussion of the universality phenomenon discovered recently in a study of critical gravitational collapse.

Fulltext is available at IOP
PACS: 04.70.−s, 04.80.Nn, 97.60.Lf, 98.62.Js (all)
DOI: 10.1070/PU2001v044n03ABEH000773
Citation: Novikov I D, Frolov V P "Black holes in the Universe" Phys. Usp. 44 291–305 (2001)
BibTexBibNote ® (generic)BibNote ® (RIS)MedlineRefWorks

:   ,    «  » 171 307–324 (2001); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.0171.200103e.0307

References (125) Cited by (19) Similar articles (14) ↓

  1. N.S. Kardashev, I.D. Novikov et alReview of scientific topics for Millimetron space observatory57 1199–1228 (2014)
  2. V.I. Dokuchaev, Yu.N. Eroshenko “Physical laboratory at the center of the Galaxy58 772–784 (2015)
  3. V.I. Dokuchaev, N.O. Nazarova “Silhouettes of invisible black holes63 583–600 (2020)
  4. I.D. Novikov “A new concept of wormholes and the Multiverse61 280–288 (2018)
  5. V.P. Frolov “Black holes and quantum processes in them19 244–262 (1976)
  6. V.B. Braginskii “Gravitational-wave astronomy: new methods of measurements43 691–699 (2000)
  7. I.L. Rozental’ “Cosmic objects and elementary particles20 167–173 (1977)
  8. Yu.N. Efremov, S.B. Novikov, P.V. Shcheglov “Prospects for development of ground-based optical astronomy18 151–160 (1975)
  9. M.A. Markov “The future of physics (future generations of particle accelerators)16 913–925 (1974)
  10. V.L. Ginzburg “What problems of physics and astrophysics seem now to be especially important and interesting (thirty years later, already on the verge of XXI century)?42 353–373 (1999)
  11. M.A. Markov “Possible existence of asymptotic freedom of gravitational interactions in nature37 57–68 (1994)
  12. K.V. Ptitsyna, S.V. Troitsky “Physical conditions in potential accelerators of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays: updated Hillas plot and radiation-loss constraints53 691–701 (2010)
  13. E.A. Khazanov, S.Yu. Mironov, G. Mourou “Nonlinear compression of high-power laser pulses: compression after compressor approach62 1096–1124 (2019)
  14. L.M. Ozernoi “Energy sources in quasars and nuclei of galaxies19 863–868 (1976)

The list is formed automatically.

© 1918–2020 Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk
Email: Editorial office contacts About the journal Terms and conditions