Singularity, initial conditions and quantum tunneling in modern cosmology
I.M. Khalatnikov a
A.Yu. Kamenshchik a, b
a Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 2, Moscow, 119334, Russian Federation
b Dipartimento di Fizica e Astronomia and Istituto Nazionale di Fizica Nucleare, via Irnerio 46, Bologna, 40126, Italy
The key problems of modern cosmology, such as the cosmological singularity, initial conditions, and the quantum tunneling hypothesis, are discussed. The relationship between the latest cosmological trends and L D Landau’s old ideas is analyzed. Particular attention is given to the oscillatory approach to singularity; quantum tunneling processes determining wave function of the Universe in the presence of a compex scalar field; and the role of quantum corrections in these processes. The classical dynamics of closed models with a real scalar field is investigated from the standpoint of chaotic, fractal, and singularity-avoiding properties.