New phenomena in quantum optics: photon antibunching, subPoisson photon statistics, and squeezed states
The concepts listed in the title are introduced and clarified. The relations among them are pointed out. It is shown that the corresponding optical phenomena are definitely of a quantum nature. The basic quantities which are measured in correlation optical experiments are discussed. Manifestations of photon antibunching and of subPoisson photon statistics in the recording of delayed coincidences, in the distribution of photon counts, and in intensity fluctuation spectra are analyzed. (More precisely, what is involved is the spectrum of fluctuations in the photocurrent; all the results of the theoretical analysis in this review are expressed in terms of directly measurable quantities.) A diagram technique for calculating the correlation characteristics of the radiation from a polyatomic system is outlined. Photon correlations in nonlinear resonance fluorescence are analyzed. There is a discussion of approaches to the development of macroscopic sources of radiation with subPoisson photon statistics: the production of a squeezed state of a field in phasesensitive parametric effects in nonlinear optics and the introduction of repulsive statistics in luminescence excitation events and in the pumping of a laser. Experiments in these directions which had been reported through April 1986 are discussed. The practical importance of reducing the quantum noise in radiation for extremely precise measurements and for optical data transmission is pointed out.
