Methodological notes

Second law of thermodynamics and thermally excited quantum oscillators

,  a
a Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation

A review is given of the first investigations formulating the idea of direct conversion of thermal energy into coherent electromagnetic radiation in quantum oscillators. It is shown that the operation of a gasdynamic CO$_2$ laser can be described, from the energy point of view, by the second law of thermodynamics.

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Fulltext is also available at DOI: 10.1070/PU1976v019n07ABEH005276
PACS: 05.70.−a, 42.60.Cz, 84.60.−h (all)
DOI: 10.1070/PU1976v019n07ABEH005276
Citation: Konyukhov V K, Prokhorov A M "Second law of thermodynamics and thermally excited quantum oscillators" Sov. Phys. Usp. 19 618–623 (1976)
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Оригинал: Конюхов В К, Прохоров А М «Второе начало термодинамики и квантовые генераторы с тепловым возбуждением» УФН 119 541–550 (1976); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.0119.197607f.0541

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